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The beginning of violent European anti-Semitism is often traced to the Crusades at the end of the eleventh century.Others claim it commenced in 1010 with organized mass murders of Jews in France, followed by massacres in areas that are now part of Germany.After the Holocaust, European anti-Semitism did not disappear.In the immediate postwar period, democratic societies such as Norway, the Netherlands, and others discriminated in various ways against the Jews in many domains. Norwegian historian Bjarte Bruland, who played a key role in the national restitution negotiations of the mid-1990s, says that among the survivors of the small prewar Norwegian Jewish community there were many "stateless Jews who had fled to Sweden, some of whom had lived in Norway for as long as 50 years, prior to the war.
The wonderful history of Florence lives on in Oltrarno, not only thanks to the so rich historical and artistic heritage, but also in the daily life: in the many restaurants and cafes mantaining the typical athmosphere, in the artisan workshops carrying on a century-old tradition of both spirit and working methods.Yet dancing is part of European culture and has been practiced as a performing art for a long time.It originated in Europe, developed over many years, and is widely taught as well as frequently discussed by the cultural elite and shown in the major media.In the words of UK Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks: Let me state the point as simply as I can: anti-Semitism is alive, active and virulent in the year 2002, after more than half a century of Holocaust education, interfaith dialogue, United Nations' declarations, dozens of museums and memorials, hundreds of films, thousands of courses, and tens of thousands of books dedicated to exposing its evils; after the Stockholm Conference, after the creation of a National Holocaust Memorial Day, after 2,000 religious leaders came together in the United Nations in August 2000 to commit themselves to fight hatred and engender mutual respect. It appears in waves, which may, but do not necessarily, correspond to developments in the Israeli-Arab conflict, with each wave being higher than the previous one.In the Arab world, anti-Jewish incitement continued in parallel with the Oslo process.